Projeler - Tezler

Kimya Mühendisliği konularında hazırlanmış bitirme ödevlerinizi, yüksek lisans ve doktora tezlerinizi, herhangi bir konu hakkındaki proje çalışmalarınızı burada yayımlayabilirsiniz.


archive Production of Isoamyl Alcohol Popular

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Isoamyl alcohol is an organic compound having molecular formula C5H12O. Isoamyl alcohol is one of the eight isomers of Amyl alcohol. It is a primary alcohol. It is a clear water white liquid of moderate volatility. It is narcotic and is about four times as toxic as ethanol. It has the highest narcotic effect among all the Amyl alcohols. It was
first derived from Fusel oil, a byproduct during the production of Ethyl alcohol by fermentation of molasses. It was then derived from the chlorination of Pentanes followed by hydrolysis. Later on, it was manufactured by Oxo Process. Oxo Process is a general process for the manufacture of C4 and higher alcohols.

archive Production of Methanol Popular

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Methanol, CH3 OH , M= 32.042 , also termed methyl alcohol or carbinol , is one of the most important chemical raw materials . From its discovery in late 1600s , methanol has grown to become 21st largest commodity chemical with over 12× 10 6 metric tonnes annually produced in the world . Methanol has been called wood alcohol ( or wood spirit) because it was abtained commercially from destructive distillation of wood for over a century [1] It is the ninth largest organic chemical produced in U .S . & one of the largest
volume chemical produced in the world . Today it is produced mainly from the steam reforming of natural gas via a synthesis gas intermediate. ethanol can & is , however being produced from such alternative feedstocks as coal & residual fuel oil [2]

archive Production of MethylEthylKetone Popular

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Based on the hydrocarbon ( R , R’ ) groups attached to the carbonyl group, ketones can be classified. MEK has the molecular structure : CH3 – CO – C2H5. It is unsymmetric or mixed aliphatic ketone. It’s IUPAC name is 2-butanone. 2-Butanone ,methyl ethyl ketone, MEK, is the 2nd link in the homologous series of aliphatic ketones and next to acetone, the most important commercially produced ketone.
It is commercially produced by dehydrogenation of the secondary butyl alcohol. It is analogus to the production of actone by dehydrogenation of isopropyl alcohol on copper or zinc or bronze catalyst at 400 – 500 0C. At 80-95% sec butylalcohol conversion, MEK
selectivity is greater than 95%. Butenes (dehydration) and higher ketones (auto condensation) are the by-products.

archive Production of MonoEthanolAmine Popular

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Monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and triethanolamine (TEA) can be regarded as derivatives of ammonia in which one two or three hydrogen atoms have been replaced by –CH2-CH2-OH group.

Ethanolamines were prepared in 1860 by Wurtz from ethylene chlorohydrin and aqueous ammonia. It was only toward the end of the 19th century that an ethanolamine mixture was separated into its mono, di and triethanolamine components. It was achieved by fractional distillation.

archive Production of MonoNitroToluene Popular

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The mono-nitration of toluene by mixed acid results in the formation of a mixture of three monomers, viz. para, meta, ortho-mononitrotoluenes, in the proportions depending on reaction conditions.

Mononitrotoluenes are used in the synthesis of intermediates for azo dyes, rubber chemicals, agricultural chemicals and explosives.
p-Mononitotoluene is an important intermediate in dye stuffs and pharmaceuticals manufacture and hence is generally in the greatest demand of the three isomers. Effort has been focused on increasing the amount of p-isomer that is formed in the mononitration of toluene.

This is a report on the design of a plant for the manufacture of 25 tons of mononitrotoluenes per day.

archive Production of Naphthalene Popular

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Naphthalene, C10H8, is an aromatic hydrocarbon with two, ortho-condensed, benzene rings. It is first member of the series of condensed-ring aromatic compound. It forms easily sublimable colorless leaflets or monoclinic crystals. It has a characteristic odor in
grades of technical quality due in large measure to contain impurities; very pure, sulfur free material has a milder and more pleasant odor. It burns in air with the formation of much soot.

archive Production of NitroChloroBenzene Popular

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The nitration of chlorobenzene by mixed acid results in the formation
of a mixture of three isomers namely para(65%), ortho(34%) and meta(1%) nitrochlorobenzene. Para-nitochlorobenzene is used principally in the production of intermediates for azo and Sulphur dyes. Other uses include pharmaceuticals, rubber chemicals, photochemical and insecticides. Typical intermediates manufactured from the para isomer are p-nitro aniline, p-amino phenol, pnitro
phenol, 2-chloro paraanisidine, and paraanisidine.

archive Production of Orthoxylene Popular

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Xylenes and ethyl benzenes are C8 benzene homologues with the
molecular formula C8 H10. The three-xylene isomers are ortho-xylene (o-xylene), meta-xylene (m-xylene) and para-xylene (p-xylene,), which differ in the positions of the two-methyl groups on the benzene ring. The term mixed xylenes describes a mixture of ethyl benzene and the three xylenes isomers. Mixed xylenes are
largely derived from petroleum.

archive Production of Polystyrene Popular

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Crystal polystyrene was the initial polystyrene produced was a homopolymer. It is also known as general-purpose polystyrene and exhibits exceptional clarity with heat resistance above that of other commodity thermoplastics. A further development was rubber modified or impact polystyrene. Impact polystyrene is opaque and exhibits  increased toughness and ease of processing versus other commodity thermoplastics.  Another major type of polystyrene application is expandable polystyrene, which is used mainly in lightweight insulating applications.

archive Production of Soda Ash Popular

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Soda ash is the trade name for sodium carbonate, a chemical refined from the mineral trona or sodium-carbonate-bearing brines (both referred to as "natural soda ash") or manufactured from one of several chemical processes (referred to as "synthetic soda ash"). Soda ash, which is one of the most important of all chemical products and is a starting material in producing many other chemicals, is produced in the largest amounts compared with other soda products. It is an essential raw material in glass, chemicals, detergents, and other important industrial products. In 1998, in terms of production, soda ash was the 11th largest inorganic chemical of all domestic inorganic and organic chemicals, excluding petrochemical feedstocks. Although soda ash represented only 2% of the total $39 billion U.S. nonfuel mineral industry, its use in many diversified products contributed substantially to the gross domestic product of the United States. Because soda ash is used in flat glass for automobile manufacture and building construction,  which are important economic sectors of the domestic economy.

archive Production of Stearic Acid Popular

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Stearic acid (Octadecanoic acid) is the highest molecular weight saturated falty acid, occurring abundantly in natural fats and oils. Stearic acid being saturated has no double bonds between carbon atoms. This means the hydrocarbon chain is flexible and can roll
up into a ball or stretch out in to a long zig zag.

archive Production of Styrene Popular

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Styrene (phenyl ethylene, vinyl benzene, styrol, cinnamene) C6H5CH=CH2, is the common name for the simplest and by far the most important member of a series of unsaturated aromatic monomers. Styrene is used extensively for the manufacture of
plastics, including crystalline polystyrene, rubber modified impact polystyrene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS).

archive Production of Sugar Popular

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Sugar industry is one of the most important agro-based industries in India and is highly responsible for creating significant impact on rural economy in particular and country’s economy in general. Sugar industry ranks second amongst major agro-based industries in India. As per the Government of India’s recent liberalised policy announced on 12th December, 1986 for licensing of additional capacity for sugar industries during 7th five-year plan, there will be only one sugar mill in a circular area of 40 sq km. Also the new sugar mill is allowed with an installation capacity of 2500 TCD (Tonne Sugar Cane crushed per day) as against the earlier capacity norms of 1250 TCD. Similarly, the existing sugar mills with sugar cane capacity of about 3500 TCD can crush sugar cane to the tune of 5000 TCD with a condition imposed that additional requirement of sugar cane be acquired through increased productivity and not by expansion of area for growing
sugar cane.

archive Production of Sulfuric Acid Popular

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Sulfuric acid is a multipurpose product and finds its application as a dehydrating agent, catalyst, active reagent in chemical processes, solvent and absorbent etc. It is used in process industries from very dilute concentrations, for pH control of saline solutions to strong fuming acids used in the dye, explosives and pharmaceutical industries, in grades of less exacting specifications for use in steel, heavy chemical and super phosphate industries. Sulfuric acid is not a one use product like a returnable steel drum, after initial use in some phases of explosives, petroleum and dye industries, the sulfuric acid is recovered in a firm often unsuitable for use in the same process but, of strength and grades entirely suitable for use in other process industries.

archive Production of Terephthalic Acid Popular

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Terephthalic acid and its derivates dimethyl-terephthalate are the petrochemicals which are a very important raw material in the production of polyesters. Terephthalic acid is produced in two forms a) The technical grade b) Polymer Grade. The technical grade terephthalic acid is unsuitable for use in polymer industry. Technical grade polymer is mostly used in the manufacturing process of polymer grade terephthalic acid and in the production of dimethyl-terephthalate.

Dimethyl-terephthalate though used widely for the production of various polymers, use of polymer grade terephthalic acid offers a lot of advantage. In addition terephthalic acid gives a higher yield per kilogram of starting material and less ethylene glycol is needed
during polyesterification. This increases the final polymer quality.

archive Production of Toluene Popular

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Toluene is generally produced along with benzene, xylenes, and C9 aromatics by the catalytic reforming of C6-C9 naphtha’s. The resulting crude reformat is extracted, most frequently with sulfolance, to yield a mixture of benzene, toluene, xylenes, and C9 aromatics, which are then separated by fractionation. About 90-95% of the nearly 31 x
106 metric tons ( 9.4 x 109 gal) of toluene produced annually in the United States is not isolated but is blended directly into the gasoline pool as a component of reformatted and of pyrolysis gasoline. Capacity exists to isolate ca 5.3 x 106 t (1.6 x 109 gal) per year of
which about half is used for chemicals and solvents. The remainder is blended into gasoline to increase octane number.

archive Production of Xylenes Popular

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Xylenes and ethylbenzene are C8 homologues with the molecular
formula C8H10. The three xylene isomers are o-oxylene, m-xylene and pxylene, which differ in the positions of two methyl groups on the ring. The term mixed xylenes describes a mixture of ethylbenzene and the three xylene isomers. Mixed xylenes are derived largely from petroleum.

pdf PVC Üretimi Popular

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Polivinil klorür amorf plastiklerin başında gelir. PVC beyaz veya açık sari renkli toz polimeridir. Normal PVC %53-55 klor içerir. Polivinil klorürü 60ºC’ye kadar işletmek mümkündür. (Aydın,2004) Yaklaşık olarak 80 oC’de yumuşar. İleri derecede plastikleştirici katılmış polivinil klorür lastiğimsi kıvamdadır (Hazer, 1993)Isıtıldığında klorlanmış hidrokarbonlar tarafından çözünür.

Polivinil klorür halojen içerdiğinden dolayı yanmaya karşı dirençlidir. Açık alevle temasa geldiğinde yanmamaktadır. Kablo izolasyonunda plastikleştiriciler katılarak kauçuk gibi kullanılır. Trikrezil fosfat , dioktil ftalat, dibütil sebasat, polipropilen glikol, plastikleştirici olarak vinil monomerler katılır ve kauçuksu özellik verirler. (Hazer, 1993)

Gönderen: Ceyda Öztürk

pdf Sabit Yataklı ve Akışkan Yataklı Gazlaştırıcılarda Performans Karşılaştırılması Popular

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Kömür, petrol ve doğal gaz gibi fosil yakıt rezervlerin azalması ve dünya genelinde enerjiye olan talebin artması, yeni ve yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarına yönelik araştırmalara olan ilginin artmasına neden olmaktadır. Biyokütle ve şehirsel atıklar yenilenebilir enerji
kaynakları arasındadır. Bu kaynaklardan enerji eldesi için kullanılan ısıl prosesler yakma, piroliz/gazlaştırma ve sıvılaştırmadır. Son yıllarda, gazlaştırma prosesi ile ilgili çalışmalar giderek artış göstermektedir. Kullanılan yakıt cinsine göre en çok tercih edilen gazlaştırıcı tipleri akışkan yataklı ya da sabit yataklı gazlaştırıcılardır. Bu çalışmada, akışkan yataklı ve sabit yataklı gazlaştırıcıların performanslarının incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır.

Gönderen: Elif Karaer-Begüm Topaç

archive Şeker Üretim Prosesi Popular

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Bir şeker fabrikası yapılan işlemlere göre dört bölümde incelenebilir.

a) Meydan: Pancar ve diğer işletme malzemelerinin alındığı, silolandığı ve fabrikasyona hazır bir hale getirildiği bölümdür.
b) Ham Fabrika: Şerbet üretiminin ve arıtımının yapıldığı bölümdür.

c) Rafineri: Şerbetin koyulaştırılması, oluşan koyu şerbetin kristallendirilmesi, ayrılması ve kurutularak torbalanması işlemlerinin yapıldığı bölümdür.

d) Yan Tesisler: Şeker fabrikasyonu için gerekli işletme malzemeleri ve enerjinin üretildiği veya yan ürünlerin değerlendirildiği tesislerdir. (Kireç ocağı, buhar kazanı,türbinler,su arıtma tesisleri,küspe kurutma tesisi gibi)